Antarctic Seals: Photos, Facts and Information - Antarctica Guide (2023)

Antarctic Seals: Photos, Facts and Information

Antarctic Seals: Photos, Facts and Information - Antarctica Guide (1)

Because of the seals' beautiful fur coats and oily blubber, they were hunted on a large scale in the late 18th and 19th centuries. In fact, much of the early exploration of Antarctica was due to seals.

Today, seals are a protected species and thrive in Antarctica. With few predators (other than the rare killer whale!), seals are notablerelaxed when it comes to peopleand will often be more curious than anything else.

One of the joys of aAntarctic cruiseis to be able to observe the seals up close.

Although only 6 of the 35 species of seals live in Antarctica, these 6 species actually make up the vast majority of all seals on Earth. The 6 species are Antarctic Fur Seals, Leopard Seals, Ross Seals, Southern Elephant Seals, Crabeater Seals and Weddell Seals.

Because of their thick layer of blubber and fur, Antarctic fur seals are extremely resilientwell adapted to freezing conditionsand indeed they often find the conditions too hot and have to dive into the water to cool off. Seals are carnivores and eat fish, krill or squid depending on the seal species.

Seals can be divided into three families: true seals, long-eared seals and walruses. Walruses are found in the Arctic, and seals (common in most zoos) are generally found in more temperate climates.

With the exception of fur seals, all Antarctic seals are "true seals" and do not have ears. Despite this, Antarctic seals can hear just as well as we can, and underwater they can hear much better than we can.

Scientists think seals use a type of sonar, similar to dolphins, to locate prey. It is also believed that their long whiskers can detect the slightest movement in a given direction.

By combining the two sonar capabilities, seals are better able to locate prey in total darkness than in daylight.

In terms of eyesight, seals havesharp sight, but can't see the colors very well. However, they recognize natural tones of seawater such as green and blue very well.

Like other low-light hunters like cats, seals have a silvery coating behind their retinas that allows them to absorb much more light than humans, which is ideal for deep ocean hunting in low light.

Seals spend most of their lives at sea, coming ashore to breed only during peak tourist season in Antarctica. Seals live most of their lives at sea, which is often the caseHold your breath for more than 30 minutesand indeed they sleep beneath the surface of the water, often surfacing for air without waking.

Below we provide information about each species of Antarctic seal and where is the best place to see them.

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Antarctic Seals: Photos, Facts and Information - Antarctica Guide (2)

Antarctic seals

Seal of Weddell

Antarctic Seals: Photos, Facts and Information - Antarctica Guide (3)

Undoubtedly one ofthe cutest sealsIn Antarctica, Wedell fur seals tend to stay in groups on the ice during the Antarctic summer months.

During the breeding season, these groups can often number more than 200 seals. Because of this, frond seals are one of the most commonly seen seals in aAntarctic cruise🇧🇷 During the breeding season, it is common to see male Wedell seals fighting their territory.

Wedge seals are unusual in that they will always choose to lie down on snow or ice, even when rock or warmer ground is available.

her love of ice creamand their need to avoid killer whales means these creatures tend to avoid ice packs and seek inland breeding sites.

Wewell Seal details:

Height and weight:The average length of a frond seal is 3 meters, with the females being slightly longer. The average weight of a Wedell seal is around 450 kg.

Feeding:Feeding primarily on fish, squid and krill, Wedell fur seals are among the best divers in the seal kingdom and can dive to over 1,500 feet in search of prey. To do this, frond seals can slow their heart rate, restrict blood flow, and carry five times the amount of oxygen in the blood of humans to reach these depths.

breeding season:The females are pregnant for 11 months and the young are born in September to November. A female usually gives birth to 2 young every 3 years.

World population:It is estimated that there are between 500,000 and 1 million Wedell seals.

Distribution:The frond seal is the southernmost breeding animal in the world. The frond seal is commonly found on sub-Antarctic islands.

Conservation status:Protected by the Antarctic Treaty, Wedell seals have a conservation status of species of least concern.

predators:Like most Antarctic fur seals, Wedell fur seals have very few predators. The only one is the orca. The Wedell seal was a popular food for the dogs of the sled dogs. However, this practice was discontinued in 1994 and the population is doing very well.

southern elephant seals

Antarctic Seals: Photos, Facts and Information - Antarctica Guide (4)

Southern elephant seals are the world's largest seals and males can weigh up to 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).

Though they are big and heavy on land,Elephant seals are incredibly good swimmers.and often dives more than 2 km! Biologists regularly record elephant seals staying under water for 2 hours.

Males are much larger than females and therefore dominate the breeding season. Males will first establish their territory on the crowded beach by fighting other males. Loot is often afemale harem 50 strong.

Fights between male elephant seals are actually very rare as most males can evaluate each other before a fight and determine which male wins.

Fights only begin when the two males are very similar in size. Males usually only have one season as beachmasters. This is because the males cannot survive a second season due to constant stress, waking up, fighting and starvation.

Southern elephant seals tend to congregate in exceptional numbers on large beaches. They are so close together that the seals often lie on top of each other and the young animals regularly die due to the cramped conditions.

By 1964, elephant seals were being killed en masse for their thick layers of blubber, and populations were declining at an alarming rate. Nowadays, however, elephant seals are very healthy and are most commonly seen in South Georgia.

The best Antarctic cruise option to see elephant seals is thisAntarctic cruise to Falklands and South Georgia.

Southern Elephant Seal Facts:

Height and weight:The average length of a male elephant seal is 5 meters with an average weight of 2,500 kg (5,500 klb). Females are typically 2.5 meters long and weigh around 500 kg (1,100 lb)

Feeding:Males and females usually feed separately, but both eat about 75% squid and 25% fish, mostly notothenids (Antarctic cod).

breeding season:From September to October, the young are born very quickly after the arrival of the females. Mothers spend 3 weeks on the beach with their young before heading out to sea. The pups spend another 8 to 10 weeks on the beach before heading out to sea.

World population:The last population estimate is from 1996 and gave an estimate of 650,000.

Distribution:Elephant seals are found throughout Antarctica but prefer the slightly more temperate areas north of the peninsula. The Falkland Islands and South Georgia are the best places to see them.

Conservation status:Southern elephant seals are protected by the Antarctic Convention and have a conservation status of species of least concern.

predators:Orcas prey on both elephant seals and large sharks. Leopard seals have also been known to kill baby elephant seals.

Antarctic seal

Antarctic Seals: Photos, Facts and Information - Antarctica Guide (5)

Southern fur seals, the smallest of Antarctic fur seals, are closely related to dogs and sea lions. Like both creatures, sea lions have long whiskers, sharp teeth, and equally thick fur. Like other Antarctic fur seals, fur seals lack layers of fat. Instead, sea lions rely on their extremely thick fur to keep their bodies warm. Sea lions are generally dark in color, but occasionally you will see a blonde sea lion.

Unlike elephant seals, female seals do not congregate in harems, instead the males fight over territory and then mate with the females, who choose their territory. As a result, popular beach locations are highly competitive, with males often mating with over 100 females in one season at the best breeding sites.

The female is responsible for raising the young and unlike other seals, sea lions actively hunt and feed during the breeding season and do not rely solely on their milk to feed their young. The females usually feed on fish along the coast while the males hunt further out to sea.

During the 19th century, seals were hunted to near extinction and their world population dropped to less than 5,000! Fortunately, seals were placed under protection in the 1930s and their numbers quickly increased again.

The best place to see sea lions is in the airsouth of GeorgiaHome to 95% of the world's sea lions.

Facts about Antarctic seals:

Height and weight:Males weigh around 150 kg and females weigh an average of 35 kg. The typical length is about 1.8 meters for a man and 1.3 meters for a woman.

Feeding:Krill is their main food source; However, when krill is not available, sea lions will eat fish, squid, and the occasional penguin.

breeding season:Females give birth in November and December. The males arrive about a month before the females to establish a territory. The females stay with the young for 4 months.

World population:It is estimated that there are between 5 and 7 million seals worldwide, with the population growing all the time.

Distribution:Southern fur seals typically live on sub-Antarctic islands, particularly South Georgia.

Conservation status:Fur seals are protected by the Antarctic Convention and have Least Concern conservation status.

predators:Leopard seals prey on seal pups to such an extent that they may soon lead to a population decline.

sea ​​lion

Antarctic Seals: Photos, Facts and Information - Antarctica Guide (6)

The leopard seal is easily recognized by its long, slender body, beautiful markings, and large front flippersone of the best predators in Antarctica.

Its large jaw contains a complex and extremely sharp set of teeth, used to tear apart everything from fish and seals to penguins, squid and krill.

Leopard seals are not often seen as they tend to be solitary animals inhabiting the ice around Antarctica's coast.Leopard seals can travel great distances.and often appear to be off the coast of Australia!

Leopard seals will eat literally anything they can bite, including a variety of seals and penguins.

Oddly enough, different leopard seals tend to prefer different prey, with some leopard seals following colonies of seals while others following colonies of penguins.

Unlike most seal breedsFemale leopard seals are larger than males.and they have a somewhat "reptilian" appearance that comes from their long necks and sideways eyes.

Leopard Seal Facts:

Height and weight:Males can weigh up to 300 kg while females can weigh up to 500 kg. Males are usually 3 meters long and females 3.5 meters.

Feeding:Baby seals and penguins are their main food source, but leopard seals also eat fish, squid and the occasional krill.

breeding season:They usually breed on the ice between November and December, but on sub-Antarctic islands the young may hatch in August and September.

World population:300,000 was the most recent estimate, but due to their elusive nature, it is very difficult to get a precise count of their number.

Distribution:It can be found in large areas. It is most commonly seen on large blocks of ice around the coast of Antarctica. The best place to see them is in open water near a large colony of penguins.

CConservation status:Fur seals are protected by the Antarctic Convention and have Least Concern conservation status.

predators:Orca only, although this is not common.

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Crab Eater Seal

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By far the most abundant seal in Antarctica, the crabeater seal is actually the world's most numerous large mammal after humans, with an estimated population of about 15 million. The crabeater seal is one of the most commonly seen seals during an Antarctic cruise.

Although crabeater seals are often seen in small flocks, they tend to be solitary and their coat color can vary from blonde to a very dark brown. They spend their entire lives in Antarctica, resting in the ice areas where they breed, molt and rest.

They can cover really great distances, but that's usually due to movement of the ice pack rather than an actual long-distance swim. Despite their name, crabeater seals feed almost exclusively on krill. In fact, crabeater seals have specially designed teeth that allow them to filter krill out of seawater.

Because males do not have to be large to compete for harems, males and females are roughly the same size. While most Antarctic seals seem unfazed by human presence, crabeater seals are incredibly shy and often glance nervously at the surrounding land. When a human approaches, they usually slip into the water and swim away.

Facts about the Crabeater Seal:

Height and weight:Crab seals typically weigh around 250 kg (500 lb) and are typically 2.5 meters long.

Feeding:Krill is the main food source for all crabeater seals.

breeding season:Puppies are usually born between September and December and are weaned at around 3 weeks. At this point, puppies are just beginning to develop a full coat.

World population:15 million is the current estimate, but estimates range from 10 to 20 million.

Distribution:Most commonly found on large ice floes floating around the Antarctic coast. One of the southernmost living species in the world.

Conservation status:Fur seals are protected by the Antarctic Convention and have Least Concern conservation status.

predators:killer whales and leopard seals. Leopard seals are said to kill about 80% of all crab-eating pups. If you look closely, most crabeaters have scars down their sides, evidence of previous battles with leopard seals.

Seal of Ross

Antarctic Seals: Photos, Facts and Information - Antarctica Guide (8)

The Ross Seal is the least known, least common, and smallest of all Antarctic seals. Because of their solitary nature and rare distribution, very little is known about Ross's seals.

Ross seals, which prefer to live in the densest ice, can be identified by their silvery-white bellies beneath their brown torsos. Ross seals tend to have relatively small heads with large, bright eyes. The size of the eyes can be adjusted for hunting in deep, dark water.

Ross seals have very small mouths with small, needle-like teeth that are good for catching slippery prey. Ross seals also produce a strange siren sound that can be heard above and below the water. Scientists aren't sure what causes this sound, but it can be heard over a very long distance, which can be used as a form of escape or encounter.

The best opportunity to see Ross Seals is atRoss Seal Cruise.

Ross Seal Fatos:

Height and weight:Ross seals typically weigh around 200 kg (400 lb) and are typically 2.5 meters long.

Feeding:Fish and squid are the main diet of steed seals.

breeding season:The young are born on ice in November and are weaned at just 4 weeks. Ross seals are believed to mate underwater, but this has never been observed. Young animals reach sexual maturity at the age of three years.

World population:130,000 is the rough estimate scientists have given. This is very difficult to estimate as very few are seen each year.

Distribution:Ross seals are rarely seen and rarely venture far from the Antarctic region, preferring the dense ice.

Conservation status:Fur seals are protected by the Antarctic Convention and have Least Concern conservation status.

predators:Killer whales and leopard seals are believed to be predators of the steed seal, but there is no actual evidence of this.

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frequently asked Questions

If you're interested in learning more about Antarctic fur seals, leave a comment below and we'll do our best to get back to you within 24 hours. Alternatively see ourFAQ-Site here🇧🇷 If you would like to receive a cruise offer,Please use this form.

Danke - AntarcticaGuide-Team

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What are some facts about seals in Antarctica? ›

Six different species of seal live in Antarctic waters: Ross, Weddell, crabeater, leopard, fur and elephant seals. Fur seals are the smallest, with adult females weighing only 150 kg, while male elephant seals can weigh 4000 kg. Four of these species are ice-habitat specialists, breeding on the sea ice in spring.

What are 5 interesting facts about seals? ›

Seals use clicking or trilling noises to communicate. Seals eat fish, birds, and shellfish. Male seals are called bulls; females are called cows; and babies are called pups. Seals have a thick layer of fat called blubber under their skin to keep them warm in icy water.

What do seals eat in Antarctica? ›

Antarctic Fur Seal

During the breeding season they primarily reside on sheltered rocky, sandy and gravelly beaches on sub-Antarctic islands with lush tussock grass clumps. Fur seals feed on moderately-sized fish, birds (including penguins), squid and krill - with krill making up the majority of the diet.

How long do seals live in Antarctica? ›

Antarctic Fur Seal Males tend to live about 15 years, while females live to about 25 years on average.

What is the biggest seal in Antarctica? ›

The southern elephant seals of Antarctica

Southern elephant seals are the largest species of seal on the planet and a highlight among Antarctica cruise wildlife. You can most often see southern elephant seals along the Antarctic coastline, dozing in the sun, nursing their pups, or swimming in the waters just off shore.

How long can seals stay under ice? ›

Weddell seals can dive up to 2,000 feet down and stay under for up to 45 minutes. But no matter how deep they dive, like all marine mammals, they must surface to breathe. If natural openings are not available, Weddell seals use their teeth to open and maintain air holes in the ice pack.

How long do seals sleep? ›

While on land, the seals went through periods of both slow wave and REM sleep, averaging about 80 min of sleep a day.

Do seals ever sleep? ›

Seals sleep in the water as well as on land. In the water, they sleep floating in a standing position, like a fishing bobber, or floating horizontally on the surface. Because they are sleeping and not actively swimming, they can stay under water much longer than when hunting for food.

Do seals ever bite? ›

Seals are large, powerful animals with sharp teeth and strong jaws, and will bite if they feel threatened. In humans, if a seal bite were to become infected by the bacteria Mycoplasma phocacerebrale, it can lead to a painful infectious disease known as “seal finger” as well as other complications.

Do seals drown under ice? ›

Ice-busting storms and warmer waters fueled by rising temperatures are diminishing the ice cover that harp seals need to survive during their first vulnerable weeks of life. Without thick, solid ice expanses, seal babies drown or are crushed by broken-up chunks of ice.

Can seals survive without ice? ›

If autumn and winter are fairly mild, the ice is soft and thin and disintegrates easily. As a result, newborn seal pups, which are born on the ice, do not have enough time to wean properly and may not survive." Meanwhile, adult seals also need the ice as protection from predators and a food source.

Can seals live under ice? ›

Weddell seals live on the edge of the ice all year round and dive down beneath it to feed. When underwater there is frequently little light, particularly if there is a layer of snow over the ice which can make it very dark indeed.

How long do seals go without sleep? ›

Hell Week: 5 days and nights without sleep

In this grueling five-and-a-half day stretch, each candidate sleeps only about four total hours but runs more than 200 miles and does physical training for more than 20 hours per day.

Are seals friendly? ›

Seals are typically nonaggressive animals, incredibly inquisitive and playful. Like dogs, they tend to investigate everything with their mouths, whiskers and front flippers.

What is the rarest seal? ›

The Mediterranean monk seal is one of the rarest marine mammals in the world and one of only a few pinniped species to reside in tropical and subtropical waters. Currently, only 600 to 700 individuals remain.

What is the biggest creature in Antarctica? ›

Southern Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia)

Southern Blue Whales simultaneously hold the title of the largest animals in Antarctica and the largest animals to ever live on Earth.

What is the most feared predator in Antarctica? ›

Leopard seal

Famous for their fierce nature, these animals are one of the primary predators in Antarctica, using their powerful jaws and long teeth to hunt fish, squid, penguins and even other seals.

How do seals not freeze to death? ›

Whales, dolphins, seals and other marine mammals can generate their own heat and maintain a stable body temperature despite fluctuating environmental conditions. Like people, they are endothermic homeotherms—or more colloquially, "warm-blooded."

How long can a seal go without breathing? ›

A: Seals can hold their breath for up to 1.5 hours! They store oxygen in their blood.

Why do seals make holes in the ice? ›

Using their strong claws, ringed seals scrape open and maintain multiple holes in the landfast ice as it forms and thickens. This network of breathing holes allows ringed seals to make use of food-rich coastal waters under the landfast ice while still maintaining enough places to surface and breathe.

What do seals do for fun? ›

They spend most of their days lazing about, sunbathing in some of our planet's most incredible places – like Antarctica, the Galapagos Islands and Peru's Ballestas Islands – they are majority blubber (which helps against the cold, you know) and feed off sumptuous seafood.

What does it mean when a seal smiles? ›

Sometimes leopard seals smile

The ends of a leopard seal's mouth are permanently curled upward, creating the illusion of a smile or menacing grin. But however happy leopard seals may be to see you, they are potentially aggressive animals always looking for the next meal.

Are seals lazy? ›

7) Although many people think of seals as being lazy, they actually have a playful side which many divers have witnessed firsthand. If you see a seal while diving, let it come to you. Seals like to play, but should also not be pursued or chased.

Can seals cry? ›

Unlike the eyes of terrestrial mammals, the seal's eye lacks tear ducts to drain away the tears, which explains why harp seals often appear to be crying.

Do seals get pregnant? ›

MATING AND BREEDING Most male and female harbor seals become sexually active at ages three to six or seven years. Adult females usually mate and give birth to one pup every year; the size of a pup can be 1/4 to 1/3 that of the mother. The gestation period is 9-11 months.

Do seals have brains? ›

Pinnipeds (sea lions, seals and walruses) are notable for many reasons, including their ape-sized brains, their adaptation to a coastal niche that combines mastery of the sea with strong ties to land, and the remarkable abilities of their trigeminal whisker system.

Is it OK to touch seals? ›

How are seals protected by the Marine Mammal Protection Act? It is against the law to touch, feed, or otherwise harass seals. Harassment occurs when your behavior changes their behavior.

Would a seal harm a human? ›

While seal attacks on humans are rare, as seals are naturally not aggressive animals, they can still bite in defense when they feel cornered or provoked. Seal bites are mostly non-fatal to humans but can cause serious infections.

Do seals hunt humans? ›

They are the only seals known to regularly hunt and kill warm-blooded prey, including other seals. Although rare, there are a few records of adult leopard seals attacking humans. There has also been one fatality, when a researcher was snorkelling in Antarctic waters and was killed by a leopard seal.

Do seals give birth on ice? ›

Hundreds of thousands of female seals congregate on the floating ice to give birth in late February and early March. A mother's choice of an icy platform is crucial to her pup's survival.

Do seals mate for life? ›

BREEDING: Spotted seals are annually monogamous. Males and females form pairs 10 days before the female gives birth, and pairs stay together until mating occurs after the pup is weaned. Females in the Bering and Okhotsk seas give birth in April and nurse their pups on the sea ice for three to six weeks.

Why do seals jump out of the water? ›

The behavior that led to the collision is known as seal "porpoising," in which they jump in and out of the water while moving at high speeds. Curious and playful by nature, the seals were likely trying to get a better look at the kayakers moving through their natural surroundings.

How long do seals live? ›

Gray seals live for 25 to 35 years. They gather in large groups to mate. Males that breed on land can mate with many different females in a single breeding season. Females are pregnant for about 11 months and give birth to a single pup.

Do seals eat snow? ›

SEALS drink seawater at least on occasion. But some will eat snow to get fresh water.

Why do seals eat snow? ›

Harp and hooded seals have adapted to eat snow and ice to keep hydrated, but sometimes mistake sand and rocks for snow/ice. These two species are known to “stress eat” by ingesting sand and small rocks when they become stressed by human presence, or don't feel well.

Where do seals go when the ice melts? ›

As the ice rapidly disappears, some ringed seals have been observed adapting as best they can by seeking out land, and using rocks and mudflats as places to rest.

What animals eat ice seals? ›

Whales, sharks, and even other seals are the primary non-human predators of seals.

Can seals survive without land? ›

Seals are semi-aquatic, meaning they spend part of their lives on land and part in the water. Seals “haul out” on land to rest, thermoregulate, molt (annual shedding of fur), and give birth. However, there are cases where seals are considered stranded and may be in immediate danger or in need of medical attention.

What do seals do at night? ›

Sleep. Harbor seals sleep on land or in the water. In the water they sleep at the surface and often assume a posture known as bottling - their entire bodies remain submerged with just their heads exposed. This enables them to breathe when necessary.

Is it OK to swim without sleep? ›

If a swimmer is extremely fatigued at practice, it can lead to injury and illness. Without proper rest, the muscles never get a chance to recover and the immune system becomes weak and vulnerable to illness.

How do soldiers survive on little sleep? ›

The Department of Defense recommends that when sleep deprivation is required for an operation, soldiers take “tactical naps” of 20 minutes, followed by caffeine. If they're aware of a mission ahead of time, they should bank their sleep by sleeping extra hours beforehand.

Is it OK to swim with seals? ›

Can you swim with Seals? Of course! With respect for the seals and their environment, it is a truly special experience to witness the way seals move underwater. While pups love swimming and playing with divers and snorkelers, it is important to keep a respectful distance from adult sea lions.

What do seals smell like? ›

It smells a little bit stinkier than dog feces. A lot of their diet is squid and fish, so you definitely get a nice fishy smell off of it. Because the seals live together, we had to get creative about the collection process.

Are seals intelligent? ›

Seals. Wild seals are very intelligent, curious and have good coordination, learning tricks easily in captivity. They are highly curious and instinctively protective - there was even a case reported of a seal coming to the rescue of a drowning dog.

How do seals survive in Antarctica? ›

When cold, seals rely on their thick layer of blubber, or fat, to keep their organs insulated. Younger seals' skin is kept warm by a layer of water-repellent fur, which remains until the seals grow the fat layer.

What is special about seals? ›

They are excellent swimmers who have been known for holding their breath underwater for up to two hours! Seals only come ashore to avoid predators such as whales and sharks, as well as to mate, give birth, feed, and molt. Keep reading to learn ten incredible facts about these marine animals.


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